Phase 1 ‘Super-diverse streets’ survey comparisons (2015)

Ethnicity, economy and migration

The ‘Super-diverse streets’ project is an ESRC-funded research exploration of the intersections between city streets, social diversity and economic adaptations in the context of accelerated migration (ref: ES/L009560/1). The research is based on a comparative analysis across UK cities and aims to explore how urban retail economies and spaces are shaped by and shape migrant practices.

The first phase of this project incorporates a qualitative survey conducted in 2015, and focuses on four ‘super-diverse’ high streets: Rookery Road (Birmingham); Stapleton Road (Bristol); Narborough Road (Leicester); and Cheetham Hill (Manchester). Each street was selected through its location in an ethnically-diverse as well as comparatively deprived urban locale. Furthermore, Birmingham, Bristol, Leicester and Manchester are amongst the cities that have the highest percentage of ‘country of birth’ citizens from outside of the UK, after London. From this grounded perspective we trace emerging capacities as well as old and new inequalities. We also record the diversification of bodies, spaces and micro-economic networks in a world that is increasingly mobile and bordered. In total, the face-to-face surveys across four streets incorporate 910 units, 596 units include retail, service and civic activities of which 480 are retail units and 68 units were vacant. 351 proprietors were surveyed.

The data incorporated on this website includes the core of our survey in both tabular and graphic form. The purpose here is to provide an overview briefing of the survey data itself. Analytic perspectives of how and why migrant proprietors arrive on these specific streets, and how and why their shops both flourish and fail is developed in further papers. Our aim in disseminating these comparative data sets is to provide a briefing of our data to inform debates and policy around:

  • The future of ‘British’ high streets;
  • ethnic minority and/or migrant enterprise; and
  • the role of historic and contemporary migrations in shaping cities and streets across the UK.

The survey of these four streets was conducted by Suzanne Hall, Robin Finlay and Julia King.

Birmingham

Rookery Road

Summary

Rookery Road is located to the north-west of Birmingham city centre, and falls within the Lozells and East Handsworth and Handsworth Wood Wards. Drawing on the latest national Census data from 2011, 22.2% of those living in Birmingham were born outside of the UK, and this figure increases to 44.9% for those living in the Lozells and East Handsworth Ward. Rookery Road is within areas that are ranked as amongst the 10% most deprived in England, according to the Index of Multiple Deprivation, 2015. Key points to highlight with respect to our survey of proprietors along Rookery Road are:

  • Of the 348 units along the street, 102 are retail units, 27 are service units, 5 are civic units, with the remainder being largely made up of residential terraced-houses.
  • While 15% of the non-residential units were vacant, 65% of proprietors have remained on the street for 6 years or more.
  • 60% of 48 proprietors surveyed reported to have been in another area of employment before setting up shop.
  • Food-related retail accounts for the most prominent activity on the street (29%).
  • We recorded on average 3.4 jobs within respective non-residential units including retail, service and civic. Based on our average of jobs per unit, we estimate that there are approximately 456 jobs within the retail, service and civic units along the street.
  • Using survey input from 66 proprietors, 60% of those employed are reportedly non-family members.
  • There were 12 countries of birth represented among the 87 proprietors we surveyed. The highest representation of countries of birth amongst the proprietors include: UK (37%); India (21%) and Pakistan (11%).
  • Long-established retailers on Rookery Road include Asians born in Kenya and India, as well as those born in the UK whose parents came to Birmingham from India in the 1960s, by invitation of the British government. In the last 10 years, the origins of proprietors on Rookery Road include India, Pakistan, Iraq and Kurdistan.
  • 88% of proprietors speak more than one language, while 59% speak three languages or more.

Bristol

Stapleton Road

Summary

Stapleton Road is located to the north-east of Bristol city centre, and falls within the Lawrence Hill Ward. Drawing on the latest national Census data from 2011, 14.7% of those living in Bristol were born outside of the UK, and this figure increases to 37.3% for those living in the Lawrence Hill Ward. Stapleton Road is within areas that are ranked as amongst the 10% most deprived in England, according to the Index of Multiple Deprivation, 2015. Key points to highlight with respect to our survey of proprietors along Stapleton Road are:

  • Of the 154 units along the street, 100 are retail units, 10 are service units and 3 are civic units.
  • 10% of the non-residential units were vacant, and 47% of proprietors have been on the street for 5 years or less.
  • 50% of 28 proprietors surveyed reported to have a tertiary level qualification.
  • Food-related retail accounts for by far the most prominent activity on the street (50%).
  • We recorded on average 3.6 jobs within respective non-residential units including retail, service and civic. Based on our average of jobs per unit, we estimate that there are approximately 407 jobs within the retail, service and civic units along the street.
  • Using survey input from 43 proprietors, 60% of those employed are reportedly non-family members.
  • There were 11 countries of birth represented among the 77 proprietors we surveyed. The highest representation of countries of birth amongst the proprietors include: Somalia (26%); Pakistan (23%); and UK (21%).
  • Long-established retailers on Stapleton Road include proprietors from Jamaica and Pakistan. In the last 10 years, the origins of proprietors on Stapleton Road include Somalia, Pakistan and Sudan.
  • 71% of proprietors speak more than one language, while 41% speak three languages or more.

Leicester

Narborough Road

Summary

Narborough Road is located to the south-west of Leicester city centre, and falls primarily within the Westcotes Ward. Drawing on the latest national Census data from 2011, 33.6% of those living in Leicester were born outside of the UK, closely correlating with the 33% of those living in the Westcotes Ward. Narborough Road is within areas that are ranked as amongst the 10% and 20% most deprived in England, according to the Index of Multiple Deprivation, 2015. Key points to highlight with respect to our survey of proprietors along Narborough Road are:

  • Of the 222 units along the street, 151 are retail units, 28 are service units and 6 are civic units.
  • 9% of the non-residential units were vacant, and 43% of proprietors have been on the street for 5 years or less.
  • 60% of 60 proprietors surveyed reported to have been in another area of employment before setting up shop.
  • Food-related retail accounts for by far the most prominent activity on the street (44%).
  • We recorded on average 4.4 jobs within respective non-residential units including retail, service and civic. Based on our average of jobs per unit, we estimate that there are approximately 814 jobs within the retail, service and civic units along the street.
  • Using survey input from 56 proprietors, 54% of those employed are reportedly non-family members.
  • There were 22 countries of birth represented among the 108 proprietors we surveyed. This was by far the most varied range of proprietors by country of birth across the four surveyed streets. The highest representation of countries of birth amongst the proprietors include: UK (32%); India (21%); and Turkey (7%).
  • Long-established retailers on Narborough Road include proprietors from Uganda, Malawi and Kenya who fled in relation to the East African Asian refugee crisis. In the last 10 years, the origins of proprietors on Narborough Road include India, Turkey, Iraq and Kurdistan.
  • 79% of proprietors speak more than one language, while 63% speak three languages or more.

Manchester

Cheetham Hill

Summary

Cheetham Hill is located to the north-west of Manchester city centre, and falls primarily within the Cheetham Ward. Drawing on the latest national Census data from 2011, 25.2% of those living in Manchester were born outside of the UK, and this figure increases to 44% for those living in the Cheetham Ward. Cheetham Hill Road is within areas that are ranked amongst the 10% and 20% most deprived in England, according to the Index of Multiple Deprivation, 2015. Key points to highlight with respect to our survey of proprietors along Cheetham Hill are:

  • Of the 186 units along the street, 127 are retail units, 34 are service units and 3 are civic units.
  • 8% of the non-residential units were vacant (the lowest vacancy rate across the four streets we surveyed), and 50% of proprietors have remained on the street for 5 years or less.
  • 78% of 27 proprietors surveyed reported to have a tertiary education.
  • While food-related retail accounts for the most prominent activity on the street (33%), there is a significant professionals ‘services’ sector (21%), including a notable concentration of solicitors’ offices that specialise in immigration law and related services.
  • We recorded on average 4.3 jobs within respective non-residential units including retail, service and civic. Based on our average of jobs per unit, we estimate that there are approximately 705 jobs within the retail, service and civic units along the street.
  • Using survey input from 60 proprietors, 66% of those employed are reportedly non-family members.
  • There were 12 countries of birth represented among the 79 proprietors we surveyed. The highest representation of countries of birth amongst the proprietors include: Pakistan (41%); UK (31%); and Iraq (7%).
  • Long-established retailers on Cheetham Hill include proprietors from Pakistan. In the last 10 years, the origins of proprietors on Cheetham Hill include Pakistan, Iraq and Afghanistan.
  • 93% of proprietors speak more than one language, while 69% speak three languages or more.

Birmingham

Rookery Road

Summary

Rookery Road is located to the north-west of Birmingham city centre, and falls within the Lozells and East Handsworth and Handsworth Wood Wards. Drawing on the latest national Census data from 2011, 22.2% of those living in Birmingham were born outside of the UK, and this figure increases to 44.9% for those living in the Lozells and East Handsworth Ward. Rookery Road is within areas that are ranked as amongst the 10% most deprived in England, according to the Index of Multiple Deprivation, 2015. Key points to highlight with respect to our survey of proprietors along Rookery Road are:

  • Of the 348 units along the street, 102 are retail units, 27 are service units, 5 are civic units, with the remainder being largely made up of residential terraced-houses.
  • While 15% of the non-residential units were vacant, 65% of proprietors have remained on the street for 6 years or more.
  • 60% of 48 proprietors surveyed reported to have been in another area of employment before setting up shop.
  • Food-related retail accounts for the most prominent activity on the street (29%).
  • We recorded on average 3.4 jobs within respective non-residential units including retail, service and civic. Based on our average of jobs per unit, we estimate that there are approximately 456 jobs within the retail, service and civic units along the street.
  • Using survey input from 66 proprietors, 60% of those employed are reportedly non-family members.
  • There were 12 countries of birth represented among the 87 proprietors we surveyed. The highest representation of countries of birth amongst the proprietors include: UK (37%); India (21%) and Pakistan (11%).
  • Long-established retailers on Rookery Road include Asians born in Kenya and India, as well as those born in the UK whose parents came to Birmingham from India in the 1960s, by invitation of the British government. In the last 10 years, the origins of proprietors on Rookery Road include India, Pakistan, Iraq and Kurdistan.
  • 88% of proprietors speak more than one language, while 59% speak three languages or more.

City locale

Rookery Road, Birmingham - City locale

World to street

Rookery Road, Birmingham - World to street

Street survey

Rookery Road, Birmingham - Street survey

Histories of arrival

Rookery Road, Birmingham - Histories of arrival

Diverse uses

Rookery Road, Birmingham - Diverse uses

Unit variation and value

Rookery Road, Birmingham - Unit variation and value

Streetscape

Rookery Road, Birmingham - Streetscape

Bristol

Stapleton Road

Summary

Stapleton Road is located to the north-east of Bristol city centre, and falls within the Lawrence Hill Ward. Drawing on the latest national Census data from 2011, 14.7% of those living in Bristol were born outside of the UK, and this figure increases to 37.3% for those living in the Lawrence Hill Ward. Stapleton Road is within areas that are ranked as amongst the 10% most deprived in England, according to the Index of Multiple Deprivation, 2015. Key points to highlight with respect to our survey of proprietors along Stapleton Road are:

  • Of the 154 units along the street, 100 are retail units, 10 are service units and 3 are civic units.
  • 10% of the non-residential units were vacant, and 47% of proprietors have been on the street for 5 years or less.
  • 50% of 28 proprietors surveyed reported to have a tertiary level qualification.
  • Food-related retail accounts for by far the most prominent activity on the street (50%).
  • We recorded on average 3.6 jobs within respective non-residential units including retail, service and civic. Based on our average of jobs per unit, we estimate that there are approximately 407 jobs within the retail, service and civic units along the street.
  • Using survey input from 43 proprietors, 60% of those employed are reportedly non-family members.
  • There were 11 countries of birth represented among the 77 proprietors we surveyed. The highest representation of countries of birth amongst the proprietors include: Somalia (26%); Pakistan (23%); and UK (21%).
  • Long-established retailers on Stapleton Road include proprietors from Jamaica and Pakistan. In the last 10 years, the origins of proprietors on Stapleton Road include Somalia, Pakistan and Sudan.
  • 71% of proprietors speak more than one language, while 41% speak three languages or more.

City locale

Stapleton Road, Bristol - City locale

World to street

Stapleton Road, Bristol - World to street

Street survey

Stapleton Road, Bristol - Street survey

Histories of arrival

Stapleton Road, Bristol - Histories of arrival

Diverse uses

Stapleton Road, Bristol - Diverse uses

Unit variation and value

Stapleton Road, Bristol - Unit variation and value

Streetscape

Stapleton Road, Bristol - Streetscape

Multiple journeys

Stapleton Road, Bristol - Multiple journeys

Street interior

Stapleton Road, Bristol - Street interior

Leicester

Narborough Road

Summary

Narborough Road is located to the south-west of Leicester city centre, and falls primarily within the Westcotes Ward. Drawing on the latest national Census data from 2011, 33.6% of those living in Leicester were born outside of the UK, closely correlating with the 33% of those living in the Westcotes Ward. Narborough Road is within areas that are ranked as amongst the 10% and 20% most deprived in England, according to the Index of Multiple Deprivation, 2015. Key points to highlight with respect to our survey of proprietors along Narborough Road are:

  • Of the 222 units along the street, 151 are retail units, 28 are service units and 6 are civic units.
  • 9% of the non-residential units were vacant, and 43% of proprietors have been on the street for 5 years or less.
  • 60% of 60 proprietors surveyed reported to have been in another area of employment before setting up shop.
  • Food-related retail accounts for by far the most prominent activity on the street (44%).
  • We recorded on average 4.4 jobs within respective non-residential units including retail, service and civic. Based on our average of jobs per unit, we estimate that there are approximately 814 jobs within the retail, service and civic units along the street.
  • Using survey input from 56 proprietors, 54% of those employed are reportedly non-family members.
  • There were 22 countries of birth represented among the 108 proprietors we surveyed. This was by far the most varied range of proprietors by country of birth across the four surveyed streets. The highest representation of countries of birth amongst the proprietors include: UK (32%); India (21%); and Turkey (7%).
  • Long-established retailers on Narborough Road include proprietors from Uganda, Malawi and Kenya who fled in relation to the East African Asian refugee crisis. In the last 10 years, the origins of proprietors on Narborough Road include India, Turkey, Iraq and Kurdistan.
  • 79% of proprietors speak more than one language, while 63% speak three languages or more.

City locale

Narborough Road, Leicester - City locale

World to street

Narborough Road, Leicester - World to street

Street survey

Narborough Road, Leicester - Street survey

Histories of arrival

Narborough Road, Leicester - Histories of arrival

Diverse uses

Narborough Road, Leicester - Diverse uses

Unit variation and value

Narborough Road, Leicester - Unit variation and value

Streetscape

Narborough Road, Leicester - Streetscape

Street layers

Narborough Road, Leicester - Street layers

Street layers

Narborough Road, Leicester - Street layers

Manchester

Cheetham Hill

Summary

Cheetham Hill is located to the north-west of Manchester city centre, and falls primarily within the Cheetham Ward. Drawing on the latest national Census data from 2011, 25.2% of those living in Manchester were born outside of the UK, and this figure increases to 44% for those living in the Cheetham Ward. Cheetham Hill Road is within areas that are ranked amongst the 10% and 20% most deprived in England, according to the Index of Multiple Deprivation, 2015. Key points to highlight with respect to our survey of proprietors along Cheetham Hill are:

  • Of the 186 units along the street, 127 are retail units, 34 are service units and 3 are civic units.
  • 8% of the non-residential units were vacant (the lowest vacancy rate across the four streets we surveyed), and 50% of proprietors have remained on the street for 5 years or less.
  • 78% of 27 proprietors surveyed reported to have a tertiary education.
  • While food-related retail accounts for the most prominent activity on the street (33%), there is a significant professionals ‘services’ sector (21%), including a notable concentration of solicitors’ offices that specialise in immigration law and related services.
  • We recorded on average 4.3 jobs within respective non-residential units including retail, service and civic. Based on our average of jobs per unit, we estimate that there are approximately 705 jobs within the retail, service and civic units along the street.
  • Using survey input from 60 proprietors, 66% of those employed are reportedly non-family members.
  • There were 12 countries of birth represented among the 79 proprietors we surveyed. The highest representation of countries of birth amongst the proprietors include: Pakistan (41%); UK (31%); and Iraq (7%).
  • Long-established retailers on Cheetham Hill include proprietors from Pakistan. In the last 10 years, the origins of proprietors on Cheetham Hill include Pakistan, Iraq and Afghanistan.
  • 93% of proprietors speak more than one language, while 69% speak three languages or more.

City locale

Cheetham Hill, Manchester - City locale

World to street

Cheetham Hill, Manchester - World to street

Street survey

Cheetham Hill, Manchester - Street survey

Histories of arrival

Cheetham Hill, Manchester - Histories of arrival

Diverse uses

Cheetham Hill, Manchester - Diverse uses

Unit variation and value

Cheetham Hill, Manchester - Unit variation and value

Streetscape

Cheetham Hill, Manchester - Streetscape